Prisoner, doctor, and trans medical care war

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Prisoner, doctor, and trans medical care war

It was Stephen Lyon Born in 1942 in Pittsburgh. Ever since he was a little boy, he wanted to be a doctor. She saw how much her parents and her community respected the profession. At Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, he decided to pursue a career in psychology, drawing attention to the fact that the department researched human stories as well as biology. In 1973, as he was closing in on his residence, Leon heard that his alma mater was employing someone to develop a medical school curriculum on sex. Leon got a job. Over the next few years, he helped set up several sex clinics at the university. In 1974, she endorsed Case Western’s Gender Identification Clinic to treat people who were not able to live up to the gender assigned to them at birth.

In the 1970s, when Leon entered the field, scientists and physicians debated for years the cause of “migration” and how to treat it. As Johnny Meerutz puts it in his 2002 book How did sex change?From the middle of the 20th century, two schools of thought competed for greatness. The first is the desire to change one’s body through a psychological lens, as well as a sign of an unresolved early life trauma or sexual difficulty. Initially, most psychiatrists belonged to this group, believing that doctors who helped their patients transplant physically only enabled their delusions. This attitude was mentioned in the words of the eminent sexologist David Caldwell, who wrote in 1949, “It would be a crime for any surgeon to break a pair of healthy breasts.”

The second camp focused on biological factors. Although adherents generally agree that a patient’s upbringing and environment may affect their gender identity, they consider a person’s chromosomal or hormonal make-up to be more important. Prominent figures, including endocrinologist Harry Benjamin, said that the process of “recovery” through talk therapy had almost always failed, in which case he favored a different intervention: “If it becomes clear that Psychology cannot be reconciled with Soma, and only then can the reverse approach be considered.

As the camp emerged, some trans people permanently pushed back against their ideology, insisting that transgenesis was not a medical disorder and that access to hormones and surgery was largely with the approval of CIS and male doctors. Not to be predicted. In the late 60’s and early 70’s, some trans people tried to arrange their treatment by providing peer advice and support and referrals for surgery.

Yet these clinics did not survive, and the medical model continued to hold the primary. In his research and scholarly work, Leon leaned towards a psychological approach, proposing that the desire for transition is a “way to avoid traumatic intracranial problems” for his patients. They looked at possible causes of these feelings, including the “extremely long, overly sympathetic” maternal relationship. When someone calls themselves transgender, he likes to say, the mind was trying to come up with a solution. In psychotherapy, patients could investigate and solve the problem that caused these feelings. Like other clinics in the country at the time, Case Western offered surgery for only a few transgender patients – about 10 percent by 1981. Many trans people were disappointed with this point of view, but at least they got some sympathy and understanding. Clinics like Leon. They were seen as people who needed treatment rather than deviation.

During the 70’s and 80’s, Leon grew taller. Her clinic attracted patients and she published articles in prestigious dailies. However, by the early 1990s, the scientific consensus between trans healthcare providers and researchers began to shift away from psychological theories. More and more people were looking for evidence of congenital, biological factors. The growing proportion of suppliers argued – with increasing quantitative data to substantiate their claims. That medical intervention was more effective than therapy in eliminating sexual intercourse. One area of ​​the human brain associated with sexual brain behavior is greater in men than in women. In 1995, a historical study was published Nature It turned out that the area was the same size in the transhuman as in his gay peers, regardless of their sexual orientation or he had taken hormones. The study found that “the interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones results in the development of gender identity.”

Two years later Nature According to the study, Leon was named chairman of a committee of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, the country’s leading organization for medical aid providers who treat trans people. The organization’s most important role was to produce and publish a regularly updated document identifying the best practices for diagnosing and treating trans people, called Standards of Care. Lyon was invited to lead the team that developed the next update, SOC5.

The standards review was a year-long process. In 1997, the organization held its biennial conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Jameson Green, a transman and later a health worker living in San Francisco, arrived at the event to find out that he was one of only a few trans people. He tells me, “It wasn’t a welcome atmosphere.” He wasn’t happy to see you. “Leon was about to chair a Saturday afternoon meeting on the proposed draft of the standard. Sitting in the Green Auditorium, the event. Waiting for the start, when he heard a commotion outside. Technically, the meeting was open to members of the public, but there was an expensive fee for the cost of registration. Many other trans workers, especially But those who were angry that they lived locally, because of the high cost, had to be excluded from a meeting, which would directly affect their care. He started beating her and demanded to go inside. “

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